In India, the English language has long been seen as a symbol of colonial oppression.
Now, the country's government is taking steps to promote the use of Hindi, the national language, in higher education - including in medical degrees.
The move is part of a wider push to make Hindi the "main" language of India, as part of what Prime Minister Narendra Modi has called his "national mission".
Critics say the move will exclude non-Hindi speakers from opportunities in education and government.
But supporters say it will help Hindi speakers get ahead in a society where English is often seen as the only language of opportunity.
The decision was made by the Medical Council of India, the body that regulates medical education in the country.
In a statement, the council said the change would "ensure uniformity" in the medical education system and help students from different linguistic backgrounds to "communicate better".
Dr KK Aggarwal, a senior doctor and former president of the Indian Medical Association, told the BBC that the decision was "unfortunate".
"The English language is an international language," he said. "It is the language of medicine. If we have to study in Hindi, how will we communicate with the rest of the world?"
Dr Aggarwal said that many medical students came from families where Hindi was not the first language.
"They have studied in English all their lives," he said. "And now they will have to study in Hindi. It will be very difficult for them."
Dr Vinod Paul, a member of the NITI Aayog, the government's policy think-tank, told the BBC that the change would help Hindi speakers to "catch up" with their English-speaking counterparts.
"In India, English has always been seen as a language of the elite," he said. "This will help Hindi speakers to get ahead."
Dr Paul said that the change would also help to promote the use of Hindi in the wider world. "If Hindi is used in medical education, it will become more widely used in the medical world," he said. "And that can only be a good thing."